# Lojban Vocabulary: verbs

- zukte
- x1 is a volitional entity employing means/taking action x2 for purpose/goal x3/to end x3

- galfi
- x1 (event) modifies/alters/changes/transforms/converts x2 into x3
- ganse
- x1 [observer] senses/detects/notices stimulus property x2 (ka) by means x3 under conditions x4
- ganzu
- x1 organizes x2 [relative chaos] into x3 [ordered/organized result] by system/principle(s) x4

- ciska
- x1 inscribes/writes x2 on display/storage medium x3 with writing implement x4; x1 is a scribe
- catlu
- x1 looks at/examines/views/inspects/regards/watches/gazes at x2 x
- tavla
- x1 talks/speaks to x2 about subject x3 in language x4
- srera
- x1 errs in doing/being/making mistake x2 (event), an error under conditions x3 by standard x4

- sruma
- x1 assumes/supposes that x2 (du'u) is true about subject x3; [epistemology]
- sruri
- x1 encircles/encloses/is surrounding x2 in direction(s)/dimension(s)/plane x3

- -v bandu
- x1 (event) defends/protects x2 (object/state) from threat/peril/potential x3 (event)
- -v xalni
- x1 (person) is panicked by crisis x2 (event/state)
- -v xarnu
- x1 is stubborn/willfully opposing/resisting x2 about x3 (event/state)
- -v xenru
- x1 regrets/rues (abstraction) x2; x1 is regretful/rueful/sorry/[remorseful] about x2
- -v banro
- x1 grows/expands [an increasing development] to size/into form x2 from x3

- -v canja
- x1 exchanges/trades/barters commodity x2 for x3 with x4; x1, x4 is a trader/merchant/businessman
- -v carna
- x1 turns/rotates/revolves around axis x2 in direction x3
- -v cecla
- x1 launches/fires/shoots projectile/missile x2, propelled by x3 [propellant/propulsion]
- -v jelca
- x1 burns/[ignites/is flammable/inflammable] at temperature x2 in atmosphere x3
- -v jerna
- x1 (agent/person) earns/[deserves/merits] wages/salary/pay x2 for work/service x3 (activity)
- -v jersi
- x1 chases/pursues/(physically) follows after x2; volition is not implied for x1 or x2
- -v kalte
- x1 hunts/stalks prey/quarry/game x2 for purpose x3
- -v katna
- x1 (tool/blade/force) cuts [through]/splits/divides x2 (object) into pieces x3
- -v kavbu
- x1 captures/catches/apprehends/seizes/nabs x2 with trap/restraint x3
- -v lasna
- x1 (agent) fastens/connects/attaches/binds/lashes x2 to x3 with fastener x4
- -v mipri
- x1 keeps x2 secret/hidden from x3 by method x4; x2 is a secret; x1 hides/conceals x2
- -v vecnu
- x1 [seller] sells/vends x2 [goods/service/commodity] to buyer x3 for amount/cost/expense x4
- -v venfu
- x1 takes revenge on/retaliates against x2 (person) for wrong x3 (nu) with vengeance x4 (nu)
- -v viska
- x1 sees/views/perceives visually x2 under conditions x3

- -v vofli
- x1 flies [in air/atmosphere] using lifting/propulsion means x2
- -vb bacru
- x1 utters verbally/says/phonates/speaks [vocally makes sound] x2
- -vb catke
- x1 [agent] shoves/pushes x2 at locus x3
- -vb cinba
- x1 (agent) kisses/busses x2 at locus x3

- -vb cisma
- x1 smiles/grins (facial expression)
- -vb batci
- x1 bites/pinches x2 on/at specific locus x3 with x4
- -vb citka
- x1 eats/ingests/consumes (transitive verb) x2
- -v tunlo
- x1 gulps/swallows

- -vb cadzu
- x1 walks/strides/paces on surface x2 using limbs x3
- -vb bajra
- x1 runs on surface x2 using limbs x3 with gait x4
- -vb limna
- x1 (agent) swims in fluid x2
- -v darxi
- x1 hits/strikes/[beats] x2 with instrument [or body-part] x3 at locus x4
- -vb jgari
- x1 grasps/holds/clutches/seizes/grips/[hugs] x2 with x3 (part of x1) at locus x4 (part of x2)

- -vb klaku
- x1 weeps/cries tears x2 about/for reason x3 (event/state)
- -vb cmila
- x1 laughs (emotional expression)
- -vb frumu
- x1 frowns/grimaces (facial expression)
- -vb kafke
- x1 coughs/farts/burps up/out x2 [predominantly gaseous] from orifice x3

- -vb klama
- x1 comes/goes to destination x2 from origin x3 via route x4 using means/vehicle x5
- -vb catra
- x1 (agent) kills/slaughters/murders x2 by action/method x3
- -vb vikmi
- x1 [body] excretes waste x2 from source x3 via means/route x4
- -vb vasxu
- x1 breathes/respires x2 [gas]
- -vb tatpi
- x1 is tired/fatigued by effort/situation x2 (event); x1 needs/wants rest
- -vb vreta
- x1 lies/rests/reclines/reposes on x2; x1 is reclining/recumbent/lying on x2
- -vb xasne
- x1 is a/the sweat/perspiration from body x2, excreted by gland(s)/organs x3

- -v minra
- x1 reflects/mirrors/echoes x2 [object/radiation] to observer/point x3 as x4; x2 bounces on x1
- -v rorci
- x1 engenders/procreates/begets x2 with coparent x3

- sraku
- x1 [abrasive/cutting/scratching object/implement] scratches/[carves]/erodes/cuts [into] x2
- stapa
- x1 steps/treads on/in surface x2 using limbs x3

- -tv porpi
- x1 breaks/fractures/shatters/[splits/splinters/cracks] into pieces x2
- -v benji
- x1 transfers/sends/transmits x2 to receiver x3 from transmitter/origin x4 via means/medium x5
- -v bikla
- x1 whips/lashes/snaps [a sudden violent motion]
- -v torni
- x1 twists under load/force/torsion x2

- -v bredi
- x1 is ready/prepared for x2 (event)

- -v binxo
- x1 becomes/changes/converts/transforms into x2 under conditions x3
- -v basti
- x1 replaces/substitutes for/instead of x2 in circumstance x3; x1 is a replacement/substitute
- -tv bevri
- x1 carries/hauls/bears/transports cargo x2 to x3 from x4 over path x5; x1 is a carrier/[porter]
- cilre
- x1 learns x2 (du'u) about subject x3 from source x4 (obj./event) by method x5 (event/process)
- sipna
- x1 is asleep (adjective); x1 sleeps/is sleeping
- cikna
- (adjective:) x1 is awake/alert/conscious

- sisku
- x1 seeks/searches/looks for property x2 among set x3 (complete specification of set)
- sisti
- x1 [agent] ceases/stops/halts/ends activity/process/state x2 [not necessarily completing it]
- cikre
- x1 repairs/mends/fixes x2 for use x3
- ciksi
- x1 (person) explains x2 (event/state/property) to x3 with explanation x4 (du'u)
- gunka
- x1 [person] labors/works on/at x2 [activity] with goal/objective x3

- morji
- x1 remembers/recalls/recollects fact(s)/memory x2 (du'u) about subject x3