Lojban and Chinese, A Word A Day

By Xah Lee. Date:

This page shows a lojban word a day, for learning purposes. Each entry includes English and Chinese (中文) equivalents.

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dukti ⇔ opposite ⇔ 相xiang1 反fan3

dukti ≔ x1 is polar opposite from/contrary to x2 in property/on scale x3 (property/si'o)

je'e ⇔ yes ⇔ 是 shi4

Reference: Chapter 13: Oooh! Arrgh! Ugh! Yecch! Attitudinal and Emotional Indicators

ki'e ⇔ thanks ⇔ 谢了 xie4 le3

Reference: Chapter 13: Oooh! Arrgh! Ugh! Yecch! Attitudinal and Emotional Indicators

ckire ⇔ thank ⇔ 谢 xie4

ckire ≔ x1 is grateful/thankful to/appreciative of x2 for x3 (event/property)
mi ckire do ⇔ I thank you ⇔ 我谢你

sidju ⇔ help ⇔ 帮忙 bang1 mang2

sidju ≔ x1 helps/assists/aids object/person x2 do/achieve/maintain event/activity x3
ko sidju mi ⇔ you help me! ⇔ 你帮我

ko ⇔ the command form of you. 帮 ⇔ help, 忙 ⇔ busy, busy work. 帮忙 together just means help.

kavbu ⇔ catch ⇔ 接 jie1

kavbu ≔ x1 captures/catches/apprehends/seizes/nabs x2 with trap/restraint x3

renro ⇔ throw ⇔ 丢 diu1

renro ≔ x1 throws/launches/casts/hurls x2 to/at/in direction x3 (propulsion derives internally to x1)
mi renro (le bolci ku) do ⇔ i throw ball to you ⇔ 我 丢 球qiu2 给gei3 你

bolci ⇔ ball ⇔ 球. 给 ⇔ give.

bolci ⇔ ball ⇔ 球 qiu2

bolci ≔ x1 is a ball/sphere/orb/globe [shape/form] of material x2; x1 is a spherical object [made of x2]

cisma ⇔ smile ⇔ 笑 xiao4

cisma ≔ x1 smiles/grins (facial expression)

dakli ⇔ bag ⇔ 袋 dai4

dakli ≔ x1 is a sack/bag with contents x2, and of material x3
mi ponse lo plise poi klani li pa lo dakli ⇔ I own apples amounting to one bag in quantity ⇔ 我有 一袋 苹果

ponse ⇔ have ⇔ 有 you3. plise ⇔ apple ⇔ 苹果 ping2 guo3. klani ⇔ quantified/measured ⇔ 量 liang4.

kanji ⇔ compute ⇔ 计算 ji4 suan4

kanji ≔ x1 calculates/reckons/computes x2 [value (ni)/state] from data x3 by process x4

计 ⇔ to write down; tabulate. Plan; scheme. 算 ⇔ calculate.

grusi ⇔ gray ⇔ 灰 色 hui1 se4

grusi ≔ x1 is gray [color adjective]

灰 ⇔ ash. 色 ⇔ color

mi ponse lo grusi karce ⇔ i have a gray colored car ⇔ 我有wo3you3 一台yi1tai2 灰色 的de3 车che1

ponse ⇔ have. karce ⇔ car.

tcati ⇔ tea ⇔ 茶cha2

tcati ≔ x1 is made of/contains/is a quantity of tea brewed from leaves x2

plise ⇔ apple ⇔ 苹 ping2 果 guo3

plise ≔ x1 is an apple [fruit] of species/strain x2
mi ralte ((pa dakli) be (lo plise)) ⇔ I'm holding (one bag of apples) ⇔ 我 拿有 (一袋 苹果).

ralte ⇔ “have”, keep. pa ⇔ 1. dakli ⇔ bag. be ⇔ connects two words together as one.

if “be” is not used here, then the sentence “mi ralte ((pa dakli) (lo plise))” would mean something like “i hold one bag. Apple”.

for more about “be”, see: Lojban Reference Grammar: Chapter 5

拿 ⇔ take, grasp. 拿有 ⇔ hold; with me. 苹 ⇔ apple. 果 ⇔ fruit.

ralte ⇔ keep/holds ⇔ 有 you3 (have)

ralte ≔ x1 retains/keeps/holds x2 in its possession
mi ralte re lo dakli ⇔ I have two bags with me ⇔ 我 有 两个 带子.

re ⇔ 2. dakli ⇔ bag. lo ⇔ some. Necessary in front of words like bag.

The exact phrase for ralte in Chinese depends on the context. Often it's just 有 (have).

for more about “lo”, see: Lojban Reference Grammar: Chapter 6

manfo ⇔ uniform/homogeneous ⇔ 一样 yi1yang4; 清一色 qing1 yi1 se4

manfo ≔ x1 (object/event) is uniform/homogeneous in property x2 (ka)

In Chinese, the closest word corresponding to uniform is 清一色, literally meaning “purely of one single color”. Translation of “uniform/homogeneous” depends on context.

dakli ⇔ bag ⇔ 袋子 dai4 zi3

dakli ≔ x1 is a sack/bag with contents x2, and of material x3
mi bevri le dakli ⇔ i carry the bag ⇔ 我带袋子

mi ⇔ me. bevri ⇔ carry.

mi ponse re dakli ⇔ I own/have two bags ⇔ 我有两个袋子

ponse ⇔ have. re ⇔ 2

sakci ⇔ suck ⇔ 吸xi1

sakci ≔ x1 sucks/is suction/vacuum/relatively low pressure of fluid/gas x2 relative to high pressure x3
mi sakci loi jisra ⇔ i suck some juice ⇔ 我 吸 一点 果汁

mi ⇔ I. jisra ⇔ juice. loi ⇔ some of a mass.

for more on loi, see: Lojban Reference Grammar: Chapter 6

mintu ⇔ same ⇔ 一 yi1 样 yang4

mintu ≔ x1 is the same/identical thing as x2 by standard x3; (x1 and x2 interchangeable)
ko'a mintu le nanmu ⇔ it-1 is-the-same-as the man ⇔ 他是 同一个 男人

nanmu ⇔ man. ko'a ⇔ he/she/it/they (pro-sumti)

for more on ko'a, see: Lojban Reference Grammar: Chapter 7

样 ⇔ type; kind; model. 一 ⇔ one. 一样 ⇔ same (one type, one kind). 同 ⇔ together; same; belong in the same group.

fadni ⇔ ordinary ⇔ 平bing2常chang2

fadni ≔ x1 [member] is ordinary/common/typical/usual in property x2 (ka) among members of x3 (set)
mi fadni fi lo'i lobypli ⇔ I am a typical Lojban user ⇔ 我是 平常的 lojban 用者.

mi ⇔ I. fi ⇔ indicates the third parameter. lo'i ⇔ the set of those which really are.

for more on lo'i, see: Lojban Reference Grammar: Chapter 6

平 ⇔ flat. 常 ⇔ frequent. 用 ⇔ use. 者 ⇔ person; -er.

viska ⇔ see ⇔ 见jian4

viska ≔ x1 sees/views/perceives visually x2 under conditions x3
mi viska le nanmu ⇔ I see men ⇔ 我 看见了 男人

nanmu ⇔ man/men ⇔ 男人

看 ⇔ to see. 见 ⇔ saw, perceive.

lumci ⇔ wash, clean ⇔ 清qing1洗xi3

lumci ≔ x1 (agent) washes/cleanses x2 of soil/contaminant x3 in/with cleaning material(s) x4
mi na'e lumci le karce ⇔ I no wash car ⇔ 我不洗车

na'e ⇔ no ⇔ 不. • karce ⇔ car ⇔ 车

srera ⇔ making mistake, to err ⇔ 做错zuo4cuo4

srera ≔ x1 errs in doing/being/making mistake x2 (event), an error under conditions x3 by standard x4

festi ⇔ waste product ⇔ 废fei4物wu4

festi ≔ x1(s) is/are waste product(s) [left to waste] by x2 (event/activity)
ti fagri festi ⇔ That is fire waste (ashes) ⇔ 那是 火的 弃物 (灰)

fagri ⇔ fire ⇔ 火

kunti ⇔ empty ⇔ 空kong1

kunti ≔ x1 [container] is empty/vacant of x2 [material]; x1 is hollow
le si'o kunti ⇔ emptiness ⇔ 空
si'o ≔ abstractor: idea/concept abstractor; x1 is x2's concept of [bridi].

For more about abstraction in lojban, see: Lojban Reference Grammar: Chapter 11

zarci ⇔ market, shop ⇔ 店dian4

zarci ≔ x1 is a market/store/exchange/shop(s) selling/trading (for) x2, operated by/with participants x3
mi pu klama le zarci ⇔ i went to the market ⇔ 我 去了 商店

klama ⇔ come, go ⇔ 来, 去 • pu ⇔ past.

pu ⇔ past tense. For more about tenses in lojban, see: Lojban Reference Grammar: Chapter 10

dargu ⇔ road ⇔ 路lu4

dargu ≔ x1 is a road/highway to x2 from x3 with route x4 (x2/x3 may be unordered)
xamgu dargu ⇔ good road ⇔ 好路

xamgu ⇔ good ⇔ 好

lacpu ⇔ pull, drag ⇔ 拉la1, 拖tuo1

lacpu ≔ x1 pulls/tugs/draws/drags x2 by handle/at locus x3
(tu poi (le mlatu) pu lacpu) cu ratcu ⇔ That-distant-thing which the cat dragged is a rat ⇔ 那猫拖的是老鼠
le mlatu ⇔ cat
ratcu ⇔ mouse
pu is used to mean in the past. Added in front of brivla.
tu ⇔ that there

For the use of poi, see Lojban Reference Grammar: Chapter 8

sivni ⇔ private, personal ⇔ 私人si1ren2

sivni ≔ x1 is private/personal/privy/[secret/confidential/confined] to x2; x1 is not-public/hidden

rectu ⇔ meat ⇔ 肉rou4

rectu ≔ x1 is a quantity of/contains meat/flesh from source/animal x2
mi citka le rectu ⇔ i eat meat ⇔ 我吃肉
(xu do citka le rectu) (ca (lo prulamdei)) ⇔ did you eat meat yesterday? ⇔ 你昨天有吃肉吗?

• xu ⇔ make it a true/false question. Add in front of a sentence. • ca ⇔ present. Example: la djan. ca klama le zarci ⇔ djan go to store (now)

mi cusku lu do cadzu le bisli li'u ⇔ I express [quote] you walk-on the ice [unquote] ⇔ 我说“你在冰上走”

cusku ⇔ say ⇔ 说| cadzu ⇔ walk ⇔ 走| bisli ⇔ ice ⇔ 冰 |

lu … li'u ⇔ “…” See: Lojban Reference Grammar: Chapter 6

tirxu ⇔ tiger ⇔ 老虎lao3hu3

tirxu ≔ x1 is a tiger/leopard/jaguar/[tigress] of species/breed x2 with coat markings x3
lo'e tirxu cu xabju le xazdo ⇔ tiger lives in Asia ⇔ 老虎生在亚州

lo'e ⇔ the typical | xabju ⇔ lives/dwells | xazdo ⇔ Asia

• lo'e: Lojban Reference Grammar: Chapter 6

nanmu ⇔ male person(s) ⇔ 人

nanmu ≔ x1 is a man/men; x1 is a male humanoid person [not necessarily adult]
lei re nanmu cu bevri le re nanmu ⇔ two men carry two men ⇔ 两个男人抬两个男人

lei ⇔ the mass I describe as | re ⇔ 2| bevri ⇔ carry | le ⇔ the, the one(s) described as

cutci ⇔ shoe ⇔ 鞋xie2

cutci ≔ x1 is a shoe/boot/sandal for covering/protecting [feet/hooves] x2, and of material x3
mi ponse su'o ci cutci ⇔ I possess at-least three shoes ⇔ 我有 最少 三双鞋

su'o ⇔ quantifier that means “at least”. | ci ⇔ 3.

• su'o: Lojban Reference Grammar: Chapter 6

gusta ⇔ eatery ⇔ 餐can3厅ting1

gusta ≔ x1 is a restaurant/cafe/diner serving type-of-food x2 to audience x3
le'e xelso merko cu gusta ponse ⇔ Lots of Greek-Americans own restaurants ⇔ 很多 西邋美国人 都 开餐管

le'e ⇔ the stereotypical. | xelso ⇔ Greek. | merko ⇔ American. | ponse ⇔ owns.

karda ⇔ card ⇔ 卡ka3

karda ≔ x1 is a card [small nearly-2-dimensional shape/form] of material x2, shape x3
le mi karda ⇔ my card ⇔ 我的卡

stuna ⇔ east ⇔ 东dong1

stuna ≔ x1 is to the east/eastern side of x2 according to frame of reference x3
stuna xamsi ⇔ eastern sea ⇔ 东方海

snanu ⇔ south ⇔ 南nan2

snanu ≔ x1 is to the south/southern side of x2 according to frame of reference x3
snanu ninmu ⇔ southern girl ⇔ 南方女孩

condi ⇔ deep ⇔ 深shen1

condi ≔ x1 is deep in extent in direction/property x2 away from reference point x3 by standard x4
condi galxe ⇔ deep throat ⇔ 深喉咙

risna ⇔ heart ⇔ 心

risna ≔ x1 is a/the heart [body-part] of x2; [emotional/shape metaphors are NOT culturally neutral]
mi risna ⇔ my heart ⇔ 我的心

ratcu ⇔ rat/mouse ⇔ 鼠

ratcu ≔ x1 is a rat of species/breed x2
lo ratcu cu bunre ⇔ that rat is brown ⇔ 那鼠是咖啡色

lo ⇔ one-or-more-of-those-which-really-are

ralte ⇔ keep ⇔ 保留bao3liu2

ralte ≔ x1 retains/keeps/holds x2 in its possession
mi ralte le cutci pe mi ⇔ i keep my shoe ⇔ 我保留我的鞋

pacna ⇔ wish to ⇔ 希望xi1wang4

pacna ≔ x1 hopes/wishes for/desires x2 (event), expected likelihood x3 (0-1); x1 hopes that x2 happens
mi pacna le nu mi binxo lo cipni ⇔ i'd become a bird ⇔ 我愿化为鸟

binxo ≔ x1 becomes/changes/converts/transforms into x2 under conditions x3

galfi ⇔ changes ⇔ 变bian4

galfi ≔ x1 (event) modifies/alters/changes/transforms/converts x2 into x3
mi galfi lo djacu lo vanju ⇔ i turn water into wine ⇔ 我 把 水变酒

pensi ⇔ think ⇔ 想

pensi ≔ x1 thinks/considers/cogitates/reasons/is pensive about/reflects upon subject/concept x2
mi pensi le mi mamta ⇔ i think of my mother ⇔ 我想我妈

lanka ⇔ basket ⇔ 篮子lan2zi3

lanka ≔ x1 is a basket with contents x2, woven from material x3
mi ponse lo lanka ⇔ i have basket ⇔ 我有篮子

jatna ⇔ boss,leader,head ⇔ 首脑shou3nao3

jatna ≔ x1 is captain/commander/leader/in-charge/boss of vehicle/domain x2
le jatna pe mi ⇔ my boss ⇔ 我的老板
le jatna pe mi cu fengu mi ⇔ my boss is angry at me ⇔ 我的老板对我生气
le ta jatna pe mi ⇔ he's my boss ⇔ 他是我的老板

fengu ⇔ angry,mad ⇔ 生气sheng1qi4,不高兴bu4gao1xing4

fengu ≔ x1 is angry/mad at x2 for x3 (action/state/property)
mi na fengu ⇔ i'm not angry ⇔ 我 没有 生气

Thanks to the lojban community for helping out. In particular, “stevo”, Philip Newton, Michael van der Gulik, Jorge Llambias. (if i missed you, please don't hesitate to let me know).