Chapter 9: To Boston Via The Road Go I, With An Excursion Into The Land Of Modals

17. Complete table of BAI cmavo with rough English equivalents

The following table shows all the cmavo belonging to selma'o BAI, and has five columns. The first column is the cmavo itself; the second column is the gismu linked to it. The third column gives an English phrase which indicates the meaning of the cmavo; and the fourth column indicates its meaning when preceded by “se”.

For those cmavo with meaningful “te”, “ve”, and even “xe” conversions (depending on the number of places of the underlying gismu), the meanings of these are shown on one or two extra rows following the primary row for that cmavo.

It should be emphasized that the place structures of the gismu control the meanings of the BAI cmavo. The English phrases shown here are only suggestive, and are often too broad or too narrow to correctly specify what the acceptable range of uses for the modal tag are.

ba'i    basti   replaced by instead of
bai bapli   compelled by    compelling
bau bangu   in language in language of
be'i    benji   sent by     transmitting
        te=sent to  ve=with transmit origin
        xe=transmitted via
ca'i    catni   by authority of with authority over
cau claxu   lacked by   without
ci'e    ciste   in system   with system function
        te=of system components
ci'o    cinmo   felt by     feeling emotion
ci'u    ckilu   on the scale    on scale measuring
cu'u    cusku   as said by  expressing
        te=as told to   ve=expressed in medium
de'i    detri   dated       on the same date as
di'o    diklo   at the locus of at specific locus
do'e    -----   vaguely related to
du'i    dunli   as much as  equal to
du'o    djuno   according to    knowing facts
        te=knowing about
                ve=under epistemology
fa'e    fatne   reverse of  in reversal of
fau fasnu   in the event of
fi'e    finti   created by  creating work
        te=created for purpose
ga'a    zgana   to observer observing
        te=observed by means
                ve=observed under cond.
gau gasnu   with agent  as agent in doing
ja'e    jalge   resulting in    results because of
ja'i    javni   by rule     by rule prescribing
ji'e    jimte   up to limit as a limit of
ji'o    jitro   under direction controlling
ji'u    jicmu   based on    supporting
ka'a    klama   gone to by  with destination
        te=with origin  ve=via route
        xe=by transport mode
ka'i    krati   represented by  on behalf of
kai ckaji   characterizing  with property
ki'i    ckini   as relation of  related to
        te=with relation
ki'u    krinu   justified by    with justified result
koi korbi   bounded by  as boundary of
ku'u    kulnu   in culture  in culture of
la'u    klani   as quantity of  in quantity
le'a    klesi   in category as category of
        te=defined by quality
li'e    lidne   led by      leading
ma'e    marji   of material made from material
        te=in material form of
ma'i    manri   in ref. frame   as a standard for
mau zmadu   exceeded by more than
me'a    mleca   undercut by less than
me'e    cmene   with name   as a name for
        te=as a name to
mu'i    mukti   motivated by    motive therefore
mu'u    mupli   exemplified by  as an example of
ni'i    nibli   entailed by entails
pa'a    panra   in addition to  similar to
        te=similar in pattern
                ve=similar by standard
pa'u    pagbu   with component  as a part of
pi'o    pilno   used by     using tool
po'i    porsi   in the sequence sequenced by rule
pu'a    pluka   pleased by  in order to please
pu'e    pruce   by process  processing from
        te=processing into
                ve=passing through stages
ra'a    srana   pertained to by concerning
ra'i    krasi   from source as an origin of
rai traji   with superl.    superlative in
        te=at extreme   ve=superlative among
ri'a    rinka   caused by   causing
ri'i    lifri   experienced by  experiencing
sau sarcu   requiring   necessarily for
        te=necessarily under cond.
si'u    sidju   aided by    assisting in
ta'i    tadji   by method   as a method for
tai tamsmi  as a form of    in form
        te=in form similar to
ti'i    stidi   suggested by    suggesting
        te=suggested to
ti'u    tcika   with time   at the time of
tu'i    stuzi   with site   as location of
va'o    vanbi   under cond. as conditions for
va'u    xamgu   benefiting from with beneficiary
zau zanru   approved by approving
zu'e    zukte   with actor  with means to goal
        te=with goal

The lujvo “tamsmi” on which “tai” is based is derived from the tanru “tarmi simsa” and has the place structure:

x1 has form x2, similar in form to x3 in property/quality x4

This lujvo is employed because “tarmi” does not have a place structure useful for the modal's purpose.