Chapter 10: Imaginary Journeys: The Lojban Space/Time Tense System

28. List of spatial directions and direction-like relations

The following list of FAhA cmavo gives rough English glosses for the cmavo, first when used without “mo'i” to express a direction, and then when used with “mo'i” to express movement in the direction. When possible, the gismu from which the cmavo is derived is also listed.

cmavo  gismu   without mo'i        with mo'i
-----   -----   ------------        ---------
ca'u    crane   in front (of)       forward
ti'a    trixe   behind          backward
zu'a    zunle   on the left (of)    leftward
ri'u    pritu   on the right (of)   rightward
ga'u    gapru   above           upward(ly)
ni'a    cnita   below           downward(ly)
ne'i    nenri   within          into
ru'u    sruri   surrounding     orbiting
pa'o    pagre   transfixing     passing through
ne'a        next to         moving while next to        
te'e        bordering       moving along the border (of)
re'o        adjacent (to)       along
fa'a    farna   towards         arriving at
to'o        away from               departing from
zo'i        inward (from)       approaching
ze'o        outward (from)      receding from
zo'a        tangential (to)     passing (by)
bu'u        coincident (with)   moving to coincide with
be'a    berti   north (of)      northward(ly)
ne'u    snanu   south (of)      southward(ly)
du'a    stuna   east (of)       eastward(ly)
vu'a        west (of)       westward(ly)

Special note on “fa'a”, “to'o”, “zo'i”, and “ze'o”:

“zo'i” and “ze'o” refer to direction towards or away from the speaker's location, or whatever the origin is.

“fa'a” and “to'o” refer to direction towards or away from some other point.